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Monday, 20 September 2021

Bringing the state closer to people: 25 years of Kerala’s ‘People’s Plan’

 This year marked the 25th anniversary of Kerala’s iconic People’s Plan Campaign, which institutionalized community participation in decision-making at the local administrative level 

Photo: T M Thomas Issac/Facebook

The Left Democratic Front (LDF) of the south Indian State of Kerala, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist), came to power for the second consecutive time in April this year, securing 99 out of 140 seats in the State Legislative Assembly. This victory broke a 40-year-old trend of incumbents losing the elections. One of the key factors behind this victory was the successful response of the government to natural disasters, such as floods, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The highlight of this response was a community-centered approach with thorough people’s participation.

People’s participation has been a feature of many other important initiatives in the State too. The ‘Public Library Movement’ helped set up reading rooms and little libraries while the ‘Literacy Movement’ contributed to Kerala becoming the most literate State in the country. Another historic example is the ‘People’s Plan Campaign,’ which celebrates its silver jubilee this year.

The People’s Plan Campaign, launched on August 25, 1996 by the then LDF government under E K Nayanar, focused on decentralization through the process of bringing the government and governance closer to the people. At the heart of the plan was community participation in decision-making. Experts laud the contribution of the People’s Plan to the strides Kerala has made in crucial fields like education, health, local infrastructure and the like, while reducing poverty. Considered the brainchild of EMS Namboodiripad, the first Chief Minister of Kerala and Communist ideologue, who called it the “next big thing” after land reforms, the campaign was part of the Ninth Plan of the State Planning Board (SPB), an autonomous body that assists the state government in formulating development plans. The campaign was also supported by a host of intellectuals, activists, media persons, bureaucrats and other public figures, alongside leftist and progressive organizations.

The launch of this initiative also took place at a crucial time in India’s economic and political history. In 1991, the P V Narasimha Rao-led Congress government introduced the Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization (or ‘LPG’ for short) Policy, a decisive movie towards neloliberalism. It was also the time when there was intense demand from international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank to reduce state spending and the role of the state in society as a whole. When ‘TINA,’ (There Is No Alternative) was the buzzword, Kerala proved that a better world was possible by offering a radical alternative based on people’s participation their daily affairs.

“Since this was a new initiative, we were all very excited! People usually don’t have a say in what the municipality does. But in this case, since they could decide for themselves what to do, everyone was quite interested. Be it a road construction project or an irrigation program. People would sit down and discuss how to go about it,” recollects P K Asha, the Municipal Chairperson of Thalassery, a coastal town in northern Kerala’s Kannur district, during the first phase of the plan.

As mentioned above, the campaign was made possible with the careful devolution of the Ninth Plan budget. According to data cited by T. M. Thomas Issac and Richard Frankie in People’s Planning: Kerala, Local Democracy and Development, the annual plan for the state for the year 1997-98 was Rs. 2855 crores (387,974,515 USD), out of which Rs. 1025 crores (139,290,325 USD), i.e., 36% of the total budget was reserved for devolution. Out of the Rs. 1025  crores, Rs. 749 crores ( (101,783,857 USD) were the actual grant-in-aid to local bodies. The plan funds were allocated between rural and urban local bodies according to their population ratio, i.e., 85:15. Guidelines were provided to local bodies to utilize the funds efficiently. The local bodies were aware of the exact amount of plan allocation that they would receive. This prevented the executive from tampering with the funds later. With such assured allocations, local bodies were able to take up development projects confidently.

P K Asha says, “In our Thalassery Municipality, we worked on at least 20 drinking water programs. Even though the municipality did all the infrastructure work, it was the people who decided on what to do. Meetings at local levels were held and problems faced by the people there were discussed in detail. The consumers of the project then formed a committee themselves to discuss more matters. Some of these projects are still going on.”

The People’s Plan was one of the major reasons for substantial improvements in public health, public education, rural infrastructure and general well-being over the decades. 28% of the population was dependent on public health facilities in 1991 and by 2018, it increased to 48%. More than 600,000 students in Kerala shifted from private schools to public schools. Infant mortality came down to 7% and Kerala achieved the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target for IMR reduction, set at 8% for 2020. Rural roads, which were 115,000 km in 1995-96, increased to 231,000 km in 2018-19. The number of people under the poverty line decreased from 25% in 1993-94 to 6% in 2011-12. The campaign also gave birth to self-help groups like Kudambashree, the world’s largest network of women with more than 41,00000 members. The mission of the organization is to eradicate extreme poverty through community action.

So what’s next for the People’s Plan? Dr. T M Thomas Isaac, one of the People’s Plan campaign architects who subsequently became the State finance minister, wrote on Facebook, “The excitement of the popular planning period must be restored. Participation should increase. Corruption must be eradicated. Modern science and technology should be incorporated in agricultural, small and industrial sectors. We must remember that we are in the transition to a society of knowledge. Watershed master plans should be brought along with district plans. Urban planning needs to be improved further. Absolute poverty must be eradicated. Women’s equality must be ensured. Eco-friendly policies must come into place. The marginalized, elderly and disabled must be included in planning. The next 25 years should be about shaping Kerala up like this.”

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Covid-19 and mental health: Introduction to e-Symposium


Author Image

Farzana Afridi

Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi Centre

The Covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns had a devastating effect on the economy, with loss of livelihoods, earnings, and food insecurity suffered by the most vulnerable sections. Although economic well-being has suffered more apparently, the pandemic’s impact on mental well-being has been equally adverse but less visible.

In an e-Symposium that will run through this week, experts from various domains will weigh in on the mental health impacts of the pandemic on two particularly vulnerable demographic groups – women and children.

It has been nearly one and a half years since the Covid-19 pandemic-induced national lockdown began on 24 March 2020. The stringent lockdown and subsequent disruptions to economic activity had a devastating effect on the economy, with loss of livelihoods, earnings, and food insecurity suffered by the most vulnerable sections (Drèze and Somanchi 2021). Since then, we have had the catastrophic second wave of the pandemic in which scores of loved ones were lost, while the economy continues to struggle to recover fully.

Although economic well-being has suffered more apparently, the pandemic’s impact on mental well-being has been equally adverse but less visible. Recent research suggests high levels of mental stress and anxiety that have persisted over the last year or so (Afridi et al. 2020a, 2020b, 2021a). In addition, the loss of livelihoods and earnings appears to exacerbate the adverse effects on mental health. More pertinently, social isolation due to the restrictions on movement may impact some demographic groups differently from others, such as women (Afridi et al. 2021b). 

In this e-symposium, we aim to highlight the mental health effects of the pandemic on two particularly vulnerable demographic groups – women and children – with a series of I4I articles over the coming week. 

We begin with a focus on women’s mental well-being and the effect of social distancing and containment policies (Bau et al. 2021). We then follow-up with two articles on innovative interventions that aimed to reduce mental stress of women – one in rural Bangladesh (Vlassopoulos et al. 2021), and another with migrant factory workers in Karnataka, India (Adhvaryu et al. 2021). 

We then shift gears, to understand the pandemic’s impact on children and the youth, particularly in the context of school closures and the resulting loss of peer interactions. How are children coping with this unprecedented disruption to their daily lives? Child psychologists and practitioners (NIMHANS (National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), and Smile Foundation) deliberate on the short and potentially longer term effects, and the role of parents and the community in supporting the younger generation through information campaigns and counselling. We end by highlighting the potential learning deficit as a consequence of school closures, the resultant widening of inequality in educational outcomes, and deliberating on what can be done to address these gaps once schools reopen (Wadhwa 2021).

Through this e-symposium’s acknowledgement of the mental health crisis, we hope to raise awareness of this silent but equally (if not more) debilitating effect of the ongoing crisis.

Further Reading


Covid-19 and mental health: Large-scale phone survey in six Indian states - Natalie Bau, Manisha Shah (University of California, Los Angeles), Gaurav Khanna (University of California, San Diego), Corinne Low (University of Pennsylvania), Sreyashi Sharmin (Stanford Institute for Economic and Policy Research), Alessandra Voena (University of Chicago). 

Latin American and Caribbean leaders approve historic agreement at CELAC summit

 The heads of state of the regional block agreed on a 44-point declaration which addressed the strategy against COVID-19 and climate change and took a stand against the blockade on Cuba


The VI Summit of the Heads of State of CELAC. Photo: CELAC

The VI Summit of the Heads of State of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) was held in Mexico City on Saturday, September 18 and concluded with the approval of a 44-point declaration. The historic summit saw the participation of 31 countries and the presence of several important leaders, such as Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro, Bolivian president Luis Arce, Peruvian president Pedro Castillo, Cuban president Miguel Díaz Canel, Uruguayan president Luis Lacalle Pou and others.

Despite the political differences among the participants, the joint declaration was approved unanimously and addressed key issues of political sovereignty. It called for an end to all unilateral coercive measures like the ones suffered by Cuba and Venezuela, supported Argentine sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, and supported regional strategies to address the public health crisis, and many others.

The resolution also condemned the international community’s lack of will to end vaccine apartheid and ensure that all countries across the world have the necessary tools to confront and contain the COVID-19 pandemic. It also highlighted the importance of the Cuban vaccines.

The summit was met with widespread enthusiasm for being able to bring together diverse political actors across the region and uniting them. Also of note was the fact that the summit was held in Mexico. Following the election of Andrés Manuel López Obrador, the country has taken great strides in helping forge greater cooperation among countries of the region. Over the past month, Mexico has hosted the groundbreaking talks between the Venezuelan government and opposition forces.

Many of the leaders spoke on the importance of the summit and CELAC itself, and called for it to be strengthened.

Miguel Díaz Canel said “The founding of CELAC [in 2010] highlighted more than two centuries of struggles and hope; and constituted an important moment for the history of Our America. Fidel qualified it as the most transcendent institutional moment of the hemisphere in the century.”

He added, “One decade later, we continue to build and consolidate it, with the objective of recovering from the devastating effects of a pandemic that has exacerbated the multidimensional crisis that already affected the world, reduce the enormous gaps that makes us the most unequal on the planet, and advance the well being of our people.”

The Mexican foreign minister Marcelo Ebrard, in a press conference, said the region is in a new moment as “a year and a half ago we did not speak, and now we are seeing how to be self sufficient in vaccine production, it is a huge change.”

The declaration

As previously mentioned, the 44-point declaration has important agreements on pressing issues that are facing the region. Several immediate actions were approved including the creation of a fund to address the impacts of climate change, calls for the creation of infrastructure to produce and distribute medical supplies and vaccines, especially the Cuban-produced ones, to help countries face the COVID-19 pandemic.

An agreement was also made to bring a common position to the United Nations’ COP26 Conference in Glasgow, and the need for support in taking measures to cut emissions and prevent climate change, but also in recovery from the impact of climate change. The region has been one of the most hard hit with droughts, tropical storms and hurricanes, and other natural disasters which have caused mass displacement, destruction of infrastructure, and loss of human life.

The Mexican foreign minister said in the press conference “we are content because Latin America and the Caribbean approved something unanimously,” he added that “we are going to work together so that we do not get behind, so that we have technology and we can improve our possibilities of well being.”

source ;

Families of Afghan drone attack victims ask US to admit to 'war crime'


Relatives reject the US apology over the killing of 10 civilians in a drone strike last month in Kabul and urge the global community to hold Washington accountable under international law.

A view of the damage at Zemari Ahmadi's family house after a drone strike one day before final US evacuation flights from Kabul on September 18, 2021 in Kabul, Afghanistan.
A view of the damage at Zemari Ahmadi's family house after a drone strike one day before final US evacuation flights from Kabul on September 18, 2021 in Kabul, Afghanistan. (AA)

Relatives of 10 civilians killed by a US drone strike in the Afghan capital last month have rejected Washington's condolences and apologies, calling the attack a "war crime" and demanding justice under international law.

"How can this [US apology] be accepted?" said Romal Ahmadi, who lost all three of his children, including a nursing infant, as well as his brother told Anadolu Agency on Saturday. 

"The US killed innocent people ... they should come to me and apologise and offer condolences."

His elder brother "was inside the house when a missile slammed into the vehicle, destroying everything," he said, adding, "he doesn't feel safe in the country".

Zamari Ahmadi, the humanitarian worker whose vehicle was targeted inside his home in Kabul on August 29, was suspected by the US military of having ties to Daesh-Khorasan (or Daesh-K).

They have not removed anything from the house since a US drone struck his vehicle with a hellfire missile, Ahmadi's uncle Mohammad Nasim told Anadolu Agency on Saturday, showing the destroyed vehicles and the damaged house.

"This is unacceptable to us," Nasim said, asking the US to "acknowledge it as a war crime."


'Tragic mistake'

On Friday, the US apologised for what it called a "tragic mistake".

The Pentagon had said the August 29 strike targeted a Daesh-K suicide bomber who posed an imminent threat to US-led troops at the airport as they completed the last stages of their withdrawal from Afghanistan.

The strike took place three days after Daesh-K carried out multiple suicide bombings on Kabul's international airport that left more than 150 people dead, including many US soldiers and scores of Afghans seeking to flee the country following its Taliban takeover.

Even as reports of civilian casualties emerged immediately, US described the drone attack as "righteous".

The killing of civilians, in a strike, carried out by a drone controlled from outside Afghanistan, has raised questions about the future of US "counter-terrorism" strikes in the country, where intelligence gathering has been all but choked off since last month's withdrawal.

In a statement, Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin said the drone strike had killed a Mr Ahmadi who worked for a non-profit called Nutrition and Education International.

"We now know that there was no connection between Mr. Ahmadi and ISIS-Khorasan [Daesk-K], that his activities on that day were completely harmless and not at all related to the imminent threat we believed we faced," Austin said in the statement.

"We apologise, and we will endeavor to learn from this horrible mistake."

While it is rare for senior Pentagon officials, including the defence secretary, to apologise personally for civilians killed in military strikes, the US military does publish reports on civilians killed in operations around the world.

The Pentagon is "exploring the possibility" of making reparation payments to the victims' families, and is "very interested in doing that," top US general Frank McKenzie said on Friday.



War crime case against US sought

On Saturday, families of the victims killed in the strike said Washington is yet to approach them since the drone attack.

The US has failed to contact the family, and while it has now issued an apology, "those who were lost cannot come back, and accepting the mistake cannot be accepted," Nasim said.

He urged the international community to hold those responsible for the killings of innocent people accountable under international law.

"Killing innocent people is a war crime," Abdul Aziz Shoiab, a judge appointed by the former Ashraf Ghani administration said. 

He said the international community could initiate a war crime case against individuals who were part of the attack on innocent people.

Face-to-face apology

"They must come here and apologise to us face-to-face," Ahmadi's 22-year-old nephew, Farshad Haidari, told AFP news agency in a bombed-out, modest house in Kwaja Burga, a densely populated neighbourhood in the northwest of the Afghan capital.

Haidari, whose brother Naser and young cousins also died, said the US had made no direct contact with the family.

"They must come and compensate," he said. "They were not terrorists, and now it is clear for them and all the world to see," he said of his relatives.

Haidari added that he wanted officials to "capture and prosecute" those responsible for firing the missile.

"Most of them had worked with Americans," Haidari said. "Naser had worked with Americans for about 10 years. My uncle had also worked with international organisations."

Ahmadi's brother Aimal, whose three-year-old daughter Maleka died in the attack, said "America must compensate".

"Today it was good news for us that the United States officially admitted that they had attacked innocents civilians," he said. "Our innocence has been proven."

"We demand justice from international institutions ... then we want compensation."

Source: TRTWorld and agencies



Taliban-run Kabul municipality orders female workers to stay home


Women who work both in the public and private sectors in many areas across the country have been told to stay home despite initial promises by some Taliban that they would be tolerant and inclusive.

A burqa-clad woman walks past a mural along a street in Kabul on September 15, 2021.
A burqa-clad woman walks past a mural along a street in Kabul on September 15, 2021. (AFP)

Female employees in the Kabul city government have been told to stay home, with work only allowed for those who cannot be replaced by men, the interim mayor of Afghanistan's capital said, detailing the latest restrictions on women by the new Taliban rulers.

The decision to prevent most female city workers from returning to their jobs is another sign that the Taliban, who overran Kabul last month, are enforcing their harsh interpretation of Islamic law despite initial promises by some that they would be tolerant and inclusive.

In their previous rule in the 1990s, the Taliban had barred girls and women from schools, jobs and public life.

Interim Kabul Mayor Hamdullah Namony gave his first news conference Sunday since being appointed by the Taliban.

He said that before the Taliban takeover last month, just under one-third of close to 3,000 city employees were women, and that they had worked in all departments.

Namony said the female employees have been ordered to stay home, pending a further decision.

He said exceptions were made for women who could not be replaced by men, including some in the design and engineering departments and the attendants of public toilets for women. Namony did not say how many female employees were forced to stay home.

“There are some areas that men can’t do it, we have to ask our female staff to fulfill their duties, there is no alternative for it,” he said.

Lack of uniform policy

Across Afghanistan, women in many areas have been told to stay home from jobs, both in the public and private sectors. However, the Taliban have not yet announced a uniform policy.

Namony also said the new government has begun removing security barriers in Kabul, a city that has endured frequent bombing and shooting attacks over the years. Such barriers — erected near ministries, embassies and private homes of politicians and warlords — had been commonplace in Kabul for years.

The mayor said private citizens would be charged for the work of taking down the barriers. While he said most barriers had been removed, reporters touring the city noted that barriers outside most government installations and embassies had been left in place.


Rolling back women's rights

In recent days, the new Taliban government issued several decrees rolling back the rights of girls and women. It told female middle- and high school students that they could not return to school for the time being, while boys in those grades resumed studies this weekend. Female university students were informed that studies would take place in gender-segregated settings from now on, and that they must abide by a strict dress code.

Under the US-backed government deposed by the Taliban, university studies had been co-ed, for the most part.

On Friday, the Taliban shut down the Women's Affairs Ministry, replacing it with a ministry for the “propagation of virtue and the prevention of vice" and tasked with enforcing the group's interpretation of Islamic law.

On Sunday, just over a dozen women staged a protest outside the ministry, holding up signs calling for the participation of women in public life. “A society in which women are not active is (sic) dead society," one sign read.

The protest lasted for about 10 minutes. After a short verbal confrontation with a man, the women got into cars and left, as Taliban in two cars observed from nearby. Over the past months, Taliban fighters had broken up several women’s protests by force.

Elsewhere, about 30 women, many of them young, held a news conference in a basement of a home tucked away in a Kabul neighborhood. Marzia Ahmadi, a rights activist and government employee now forced to sit at home, said they would demand the Taliban re-open public spaces to women.

“It’s our right,” she said. “We want to talk to them. We want to tell them that we have the same rights as they have."

Most of the participants said they would try to leave the country if they had an opportunity.



Kabul's residents sell belongings

Perhaps the toughest challenge faced by the new Taliban rulers is the accelerated economic downturn. Even before the Taliban takeover, Afghanistan was plagued by major problems, including large-scale poverty, drought and heavy reliance on foreign aid for the state budget.

In a sign of growing desperation, street markets have sprung up in Kabul where residents are selling their belongings. Some of the sellers are Afghans hoping to leave the country, while others are forced to offer their meager belongings in hopes of getting money for the next meal.

“Our people need help, they need jobs, they need immediate help, they are not selling their household belongings for choice here,” said Kabul resident Zahid Ismail Khan, who was watching the activity in one of the impromptu markets.

Source: AP

[BREAKING] Rajasthan High Court declares result of Preliminary examination of District Judge.

 Rajasthan high court (Pic By Google).png 

The High Court of Rajasthan has declared the result of the Preliminary Examination held on 25.07.2021 for direct recruitment to the Cadre of District Judge, 2O2O.

The Cut off marks of the exam are:
1- General – 96 marks
2- SC – 58 marks
3- ST – 58 marks
4- OBC – 85 marks

The notification states that “while resolving various objections,06 Questions have been deleted and OMR Answer Sheets have been evaluated on the basis of remaining 144 questions with 144 maximum marks.”

Roll Number and Marks of candidates, who have not qualified for the main examination will be uploaded on the official website of this court, very soon.



 source ;

Protests after Taliban replace Ministry of Women's Affairs


It was the latest troubling sign that the Taliban are restricting women’s rights as they settle into government, just a month since they overran the capital of Kabul.

Afghan women take part in a protest in Herat, Afghanistan on September 2, 2021.
Afghan women take part in a protest in Herat, Afghanistan on September 2, 2021. (AFP)

About two dozen female activists protested outside Afghanistan's women's ministry after it was closed by Taliban militants in power in Kabul and replaced by their Ministry for Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice.

Female staff said they had been trying to return to work at the ministry for several weeks since the Taliban takeover last month, only to be told to go home.

The sign outside the Ministry of Women's Affairs has been replaced by one for the Ministry for Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice.

"The Ministry of Women's Affairs must be reactivated," said Baseera Tawana, one of the protesters outside the building.

"The removal of women means the removal of human beings."

When Taliban were in power from 1996-2001, girls were not allowed to attend school and women were banned from work and education.

During that period, the Ministry for Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice became known as the group's moral police, enforcing its interpretation of sharia that includes a strict dress code and public executions and floggings.


Gender-segregated classes

The protest came a day after some girls returned to primary schools with gender-segregated classes, but older girls faced an anxious wait with no clarity over if and when they would be able to resume their studies.

"You cannot suppress the voice of Afghan women by keeping girls at home and restricting them, as well as by not allowing them to go to school," said protester Taranum Sayeedi.

"The woman of Afghanistan today are not the woman of 26 years ago."

Taliban officials have said they will not return to their fundamentalist policies, including the ban on girls receiving an education. 

Source: Reuters

भारी बारिश से हुए नुकसान के सर्वे में जुटा प्रशासन:रतलाम में भारी बारिश से छतिग्रस्त हुए मकानों का आज होगा सर्वे, 24 घंटों में पहुंचाई जाएगी संपत्ति के नुकसान की राहत राशि

from मध्य प्रदेश | दैनिक भास्कर September 20, 2021 at 08:44AM

राजशाही रेल रेस्टोरेंट में मिलेगा ट्रेन का फील:भोपाल और इटारसी रेलवे स्टेशन पर कोच में तैयार होगा; सभी के लिए 24 घंटे खुला रहेगा

भोपाल के छह नंबर और इटारसी के 1 नंबर प्लेटफार्म पर बनेगा

from मध्य प्रदेश | दैनिक भास्कर September 20, 2021 at 05:52AM

MP में आज से 5वीं तक की क्लास शुरू:50% छात्र को अनुमति; पेरेंट्स की अनुमति जरूरी, सरकारी स्कूलों में दूसरी क्लास का बच्चा पहली क्लास पढ़ेगा

from मध्य प्रदेश | दैनिक भास्कर September 20, 2021 at 05:50AM

मरीज से लूट का नया खेल:नामी डॉक्टरों का नाम बता कमीशन वाले अस्पताल में छोड़ गया एम्बुलेंस ड्राइवर, चार दिन 60 हजार बिल बना दिया

from मध्य प्रदेश | दैनिक भास्कर September 20, 2021 at 08:10AM

MP में कलेक्टर-कमिश्नर कॉन्फ्रेंस आज:सुशासन व सुराज अभियान पर बात करेंगे मुख्यमंत्री; माफिया के खिलाफ एक्शन के अलावा सरकारी योजनाओं की जानकारी लेंगे, देर शाम बुलाई कैबिनेट बैठक

from मध्य प्रदेश | दैनिक भास्कर September 20, 2021 at 05:50AM

छलका दर्द..अपनी ही पार्टी के खिलाफ दिया धरना:पिछड़ा वर्ग के पूर्व प्रदेश उपाध्यक्ष ने कहा-BJP अब प्राइवेट लिमिटेड कंपनी बन गई है, नेता-कार्यकर्ताओं की इज्जत नहीं

from मध्य प्रदेश | दैनिक भास्कर September 20, 2021 at 05:52AM